[List] Investigatory Project in Physics for Class 12 CBSE

 Welcome back to our Education blog today we will make a list of investigatory projects in physics for class 12 so if you are a class 12 physics student and searching topics for physics investigatory project class 12 then you should read this post till the end.

In this post, we have added some investigative topics and how to make those investigative projects defined in steps, so this post can be important for all class 12 students who want to make an extraordinary investigatory project in physics.

Why do these investigatory project

Investigatory Project in Physics for Class 12
Investigatory Project in Physics for Class 12 CBSE

  • A simple reason for creating these investigative projects is to enable students to see theoretical concepts in practical applications so that all students can understand that concepts.

  • Another important reason is that with the help of these projects, all students can develop critical thinking, experimental skills, and a deeper understanding of scientific principles.

Process of choosing a physics investigatory project class 12 CBSE

Choosing a Topic Selecting the right topic is crucial for a successful investigative project. Factors such as personal interest, feasibility, availability of resources, and relevance to the syllabus should be considered. Some intriguing topics for class 12 projects include:

  • Solar Cell Efficiency
  • Simple Pendulum and Factors Affecting its Period
  • Electromagnetic Induction

Now let me tell you about some investigatory projects in detail

investigatory project in physics for class 12

In this list, we categorize these projects into three difficulty levels Basic, Moderate, and Hard:

  • Basic

So let's start with basic-level projects

1.) Simple Pendulum and Factors Affecting its Period


This is a basic-level inquiry project so if you do not have advanced knowledge of the subject then you can choose these projects but remember that this project can also be chosen by other students.

This project will help students understand the fundamental principles of oscillation and gravity.


In this project, students will "analyze how length, mass, and angle affect the period of a pendulum". 

Materials Needed:

  • String or wire
  • Bob (can be a small mass like a metal ball)
  • Stopwatch or timer
  • Protractor (for measuring angles)
  • Ruler or measuring tape


  • Construct the Pendulum: your first step is to Attach the bob to one end of the string or wire.

  • Measure and Set Variables: 

Vary the length of the string while keeping the mass constant.

Vary the mass of the bob while keeping the string length constant.

Experiment with different starting angles while keeping the length and mass constant.

  • Experimental Setup:

Now start to move the pendulum in motion by displacing it and releasing it from various starting angles.

Keep a stopwatch or timer to measure the time taken for a fixed number of oscillations (usually 10 or 20) and calculate the period for each variation.

  • Data Collection:

Record all the measurements (Time, length, and angle) systematically for each trial and variation.

  • Analysis:

After recording the value find the relationship between the length, mass, and angle of displacement with the period of the pendulum.


Draw conclusions based on the observed patterns and relationships between the variables.

Resources for Building the Project:

  • Physics Textbooks or Online Resources
  • Physics Lab Manuals

2.) Radioactivity Measurement:

Now come to the next project "Radioactivity Measurement" " In this project, students have to build a simple radiation detector to measure radioactivity levels in different materials and environments. 

This experiment will help all students understand the basic principles of radioactivity and how it varies in different substances or settings.


Main Objective of this investigatory project is to construct a basic radiation detector and measure radioactivity levels.

Materials Needed:

  • Geiger-Müller (GM) tube or a simple radiation detector kit
  • Power supply or batteries
  • Various materials (like soil, rocks, household items) to test for radioactivity
  • Safety equipment (such as gloves and protective gear)

Note:- Please do not perform this project without school permission.


Follow these steps to make this project

Assemble the DetectorFollow the provided instructions to assemble the radiation detector or connect the GM tube to a power supply.
Calibrate the DetectorEstablish a baseline measurement in a low-radioactivity environment to set the detector's initial readings.
Test MaterialsMeasure radioactivity levels by placing the detector near different materials like soil, rocks, household items, etc.
Safety MeasuresAdhere to safety protocols while handling potentially radioactive materials.
Data CollectionRecord radiation readings obtained for each tested material or environment.
AnalysisCompare and analyze recorded radiation levels across different substances or settings.
ConclusionDraw conclusions based on measured radioactivity levels and their variations among various materials/environments.


For resources, you can follow radiation detector kits, online guides and manuals, educational websites, and physics resources.

  • Medium Level investigatory project in physics for class 12

3.) Interference and Diffraction of Light:

Let's talk about our medium-level project "Interference and Diffraction of Light". In this project, all the students have to study the patterns created by the interference and diffraction of light waves. This project will help to teach how light behaves when passing through narrow openings or encountering obstacles, resulting in distinct interference and diffraction patterns.


The objective of this physics project is to study and observe the interference and diffraction patterns produced by light.

Materials Needed:

  • Light source (laser pointer or a narrow beam source)
  • Double-slit apparatus or diffraction grating (for interference and diffraction setup)
  • Screen or surface for projection
  • Ruler or measuring tool
  • Darkened room or controlled lighting environment


Now comes to Procedure:

Setup Interference ExperimentCreate double slits or narrow openings to generate two light sources.
Setup Diffraction ExperimentUse a diffraction grating or single slit to produce diffraction patterns. Observe the pattern on a screen.
Adjustments and MeasurementsExperiment with slit/grating distances, screen positions, and angles. Measure distances between patterns.
Observation and Data CollectionRecord observations of interference and diffraction patterns observed on the screen.
AnalysisAnalyze observed patterns, noting characteristics of interference fringes or diffraction patterns.
ConclusionDraw conclusions regarding light behavior through slits or obstacles based on observed interference/diffraction.

Resources :

Many physics textbooks and Physics Lab Manuals are more than enough.

  • Advanced Level Investigatory Project in Physics For Class 12

Now talk about some Advanced Level Investigatory:

4.) Solar Cell Efficiency

This project can be a very good option for the investigatory project if you want to impress your class teacher and other physics teachers. This project involves analyzing the factors influencing the efficiency of solar cells by experimenting with different materials, angles, and light intensities.


  • Main Objective is to investigate and analyze factors affecting the efficiency of solar cells.

Materials Needed:

  • Different types of solar cells or solar panels
  • Light source (sunlight or artificial light)
  • Multimeter or voltmeter
  • Various materials for testing (different surface coatings, angles, etc.)
  • Measurement tools (ruler, protractor, etc.)


Now let me tell you how can you develop this project in Steps.

Understanding Solar Cell BasicsLearn about the fundamental principles of solar cells, focusing on the photovoltaic effect and electricity generation from sunlight.
Experimental SetupCreate a controlled environment and set up various solar cells or panels. Connect them to a multimeter for measuring voltage or current output.
Testing FactorsExperiment with different surface coatings or materials on solar cells to observe efficiency changes. Adjust solar cell angles and orientations to the light source, noting output changes. Vary light intensity hits the solar cells and records corresponding electrical output variations.
Data CollectionMeasure and record voltage, current, and other relevant data for each experimental setup using the multimeter.
AnalysisAnalyze collected data to identify patterns and correlations between different factors (materials, angles, light intensity) and solar cell efficiency.

Resources for Conducting the Project:

Solar Cell Guides and Manuals: These manuals can't be found in your text book so you can look at the websites that provide guides explaining solar cell experimentation and efficiency factors.

DIY Solar Cell Kits:- You can also buy Kits designed for solar cell experimentation if available.


Project planning and research: 

  • After choosing a project Do some Developing a vision and gathering resources for the project.

Experiment Procedure:

  •  Conducting tests and recording observations systematically.

Project presentation and documentation: 

  • Structuring a clear report and creating an attractive presentation.


Here in this post, we add a list of investigatory projects in physics for class 12 so if you are searching for an investigatory project Topic for class 12 then you should read this spot till the end.

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